Dialysis is the procedure used to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances and to remove waste products in renal (kidney) failure.
Causes: High blood pressure and diabetes are the two most common causes of kidney failure.
Kidney stones are hard, pebble-like pieces of material that form in one or both of your kidneys when high levels of certain minerals are in your urine.
Causes: Most stones form by a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Risk factors include high urine calcium levels, obesity, certain foods, some medications, calcium supplements, hyperparathyroidism, gout and not drinking enough fluids.
Uremia is a buildup of toxins in your blood. It occurs when the kidneys stop filtering toxins out through your urine. Uremia is often a sign of end-stage renal (kidney) disease. Treatments include medication, dialysis and kidney transplant surgery.
Causes: Uremia is caused by extreme and usually irreversible damage to your kidneys. This is usually from chronic kidney disease. The kidneys are no longer able to filter the waste from your body and send it out through your urine.
The nephritic syndrome is a clinical syndrome that presents as hematuria, elevated blood pressure, decreased urine output, and edema. The major underlying pathology is inflammation of the glomerulus that results in nephritic syndrome.
Causes: Common causes are infections, immune system disorders and inflammation of the blood vessels. The main symptoms are passing less urine than normal, leading to a fluid buildup in the body, and having blood in the urine.
Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be diagnosed with blood and urine tests. In many cases, CKD is only found when a routine blood or urine test you have for another problem shows that your kidneys may not be working normally.
Causes: The two most common causes of CKD are diabetes and high blood pressure.
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